Based on the International Organic Farming Federation (IFOAM) norms, we can explain how organic agriculture is an agricultural model:
It is a form of agricultural production without using synthetic chemicals using biological, biotechnical and mechanical methods in the fight against diseases and pests; using only natural materials for soil efficiency, keeping their use to a minimum, without causing the depletion of Natural Resources. Keeping the same main idea in the processing and marketing of the products produced, not using of additives; selection of packaging materials and methods that are compatible with the environment; The protection of human and animal rights and welfare in the process of production, processing and marketing is also among the principles of organic agriculture.
ORİGİNATİON AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE İDEA OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD
At the beginning of the 20th century, the philosophy of protecting the environment and making it available to future generations without destroying natural resources such as soil and water has begun to emerge.
In the second half of the 20th century, organic farming tendency has increased in the face of the steady increase in the use of synthetic chemicals as fertilizer and agrochemicals.
Although organic agriculture is perceived as a new production system, in fact, this system is not a new system.
Starting from the earliest times of agriculture in the world, applications until the end of World War II, where intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, is essentially organic farming.
So, organic farming is actually the oldest model of Agriculture on Earth.
However, this model has re-emerged by the erosion of natural resources and the synthetic pharmaceutical and manure residues in agricultural products as an outdated trend against human and animal health hazards caused by the intensive use of innovations brought about by technological advances in the last half century.
The development of the organic agriculture sector required the need for legal regulations on this issue, and the countries have adopted organic farming laws governing the production, processing and marketing of organic farming products.
These laws are governed by how organic agriculture is to be made and how organic products are processed and marketed.
While preparing organic farming laws and regulations, it is also important to keep the environment during the agricultural activity process and to leave the soil resources to the future generations in a way that will protect their clean and productive characteristics.
Thus organic farming is also a good sustainable agricultural model.
ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD
Organic agriculture is rapidly developing in the world. As of 2007, organic farming is being carried out in 120 countries.
A total of 634 000 farmers make organic agriculture on 310 million acres
The number of farmers as well as organic farming is growing
Organic products market has grown 15-20% annually since the 1980s
World organic product trade is around $ 40 billion
DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN TURKEY
In our country, organic production started in the 1980s with the demand of European companies importing organic products from Turkey.
Following the adoption of a regulation regulating the production and marketing of herbal products in the framework of ecological agriculture activities in the European Community in 1991, a supplement was added to this regulation in 1992 and the rules to be followed by countries that would sell ecological products to the European Community were explained and the exporting countries were asked to arrange their own legislation accordingly.
Siderophore (in greek iron carrier), microorganisms, which are secreted by many plants and some higher organisms, iron chelating compounds.
Iron Fe3+ ions have very low solubility at neutral pH and can therefore not be used by organisms.
These solvated complexes are introduced into the cell by active transport. Most siderophores are nonribosomal peptides.
Chelation (chelating or clapping terms are also used) is the bonding or mixing of two or more threaded chemical ligands to an ionic substrate.
These ligands, usually organic compounds, are called chelators or chelator agent (other terms used: chelant, chelator, clamp, ion holder).
A group of atoms, ions, or functional groups that give one or more electrons to one or more central atoms or ions through a ligand - coordinate covalent bond.
A covalent bond is a description of the chemical bond characterized by sharing one or more electrons between two atoms.
Iron is the most abundant chemical element in the world and microorganisms need this element to grow.
For this reason, they have regulatory tasks for cellular and metabolic processes in organisms.
It has been reported that iron; it is an important element for many microorganisms in metabolic reactions such as photosynthesis, oxygen release, respiration, TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, gene regulation, nitrate synthesis, nitrogen fixation, ATP synthesis and DNA synthesis, and other biological events.
Although eukaryotic organisms are very difficult to decipher iron, bacteria have developed different strategies to use iron that is necessary for them.
The solubility of iron in the form of Fe-III is very low and therefore cannot be used by organisms.
Iron (Fe-II) is soluble in water under anoxic conditions.
However, in oxic conditions, iron is generally insoluble in water (Fe-III).
Bacteria use chelate agents known as siderophore to meet the iron needs.
It has been determined that siderophores produced by bacteria are effective on plant pathogens.
Chemical compounds produced by microorganisms around the plant roots (in the rhizosphere) increase the presence and uptake of some essential minerals, such as iron.
Hydroxamate and catecholate siderophores produced by rhizospheric bacteria are used by plants.
Especially Azotobacter and Pseudomonas bacteria; It has been reported that agricultural applications for increasing product, quality and yield can be used in biotechnological studies such as arid, industrially polluted soils due to salinity, making them more suitable for agriculture and biological control against some plant pathogens.
The siderophores produced by pseudomonas have been reported to bind the required Fe-III to inhibit the formation of fungal pathogens and to eliminate the disease.
The Black Sea Journal of Sciences 85 there are some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas known as bacteria (PGPB) that develop plant growth.
They suppress plant pathogens when inoculated into the ground parts of the seed or plant.
One of the mechanisms of disease suppression by PGRB is the production of siderophores such as pyoverdin and pyochelin.
Siderophore captures the iron around the roots and thus prevents the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium ultimum, which cause wilt and root rot.
Siderophore is secreted out of the cell. Siderophore clutches iron outside the cell and solves it.
The siderophores are anchored strongly by forming an octahedral siderophore-iron complex with iron.
Then siderophores are recognized by specific receptors.
After binding to these receptors, siderophores are transported through the cell membrane by various mechanisms.
The relative weak complexation of Fe (II) formed after the reduction of iron (III) in the cell provides a fruitful way to release iron into the cell.
Microorganisms compete with each other using structurally different siderophores to bond the iron.